Physics from Outside the Box

The Standard Model Still Rules but There Are Signs of Change

The standard model of modern physics is an uneasy blend of relativity theory and quantum mechanics. Relativity theory, developed by Hendrik Lorentz and Henri Poincare and Albert Einstein, supposedly explains gravity and the bending of light near massive bodies, among other things. Quantum mechanics has given us lasers and transistors and also purports to explain a good many things. But no one yet has developed, and then conclusively proven, a theory completely unifying these two pillars of modern physics. Most recently, string theory has attempted to do so, and has then been modified into membrane theory. But neither of these theories can be proven or disproven. And there are many other problems with the standard model. The magnetic fields of planets, stars, neutron stars, and black holes have not been satisfactorily explained, nor the excess heat produced by bodies in space, particularly the gas giant outer planets of our own Solar System. And that’s not the only problem.

Physicists and engineers noted long ago that heat in any closed system (like a steam engine) dissipates over time and is no longer available to do work. They then expanded this Second Law of Thermodynamics into a general rule, claiming that increasing entropy, or disorder, was a general rule applying to the entire universe. But these same physicists believe that the universe began as a single, undifferentiated point that exploded into the expanding universe. And as the universe expanded, stars and planets and galaxies and clusters and super clusters evolved, and, on and in the planets, cores and mantles and crusts and minerals and rocks…and life. Color me stupid, but that looks to me like an increase, not a decrease in structure and order.

Relativity theory was developed after James Clerk Maxwell’s laws explaining electromagnetism had been reinterpreted by Oliver Heaviside, who substituted a simpler form of algebra for the quaternion algebra used in the original equations. Quaternion algebra, developed by Sir William Rowan Hamilton, uses complex numbers (mixtures of real and imaginary numbers) to describe points in space. Many researchers believe that physics began to go in the wrong direction with Heaviside’s alterations. Then Michelson and Morley’s famous experiment seemed to disprove the existence of a static and mechanical luminiferous ether, but what if there is a dynamic ether? Or what, as Hendrik Lorentz and Gustav Mie postulated, there is an electromagnetic ether?

We laymen who struggle with first semester calculus cannot understand much of this, nor are most of us qualified to propose alternate theories, but any intelligent and open-minded person can see that there are problems, serious problems, with the standard model. For example, relativity theory is based on the assumption that there is no ether (which would have allowed a totally different explanation for everything), but relativity theory states that space bends. If there is no ether, space is nothingness, and nothingness, by definition, cannot bend. There has to be something there to do the bending, and, late in life, Einstein admitted that relativity theory requires an ether. Relativity may require an ether…but an ether does not require relativity.

It should be no surprise that many individuals, some of them mathematicians, physicists, and astronomers, have challenged parts of the standard model, or even proposed completely alternate theories. Nikola Tesla believed in a dynamic ether which could be tapped as an energy source, and he also believed that he could produce longitudinal electromagnetic waves (electromagnetic waves, including visible light, are transverse, with an electric wave and a magnetic wave at right angles to one another). Alternative energy researcher Tom Bearden also believes that longitudinal waves exist and rejects Heaviside’s version of Maxwell’s equations, insisting that they need to be understood in their original quaternion form.

In 1921 Theodor Kaluza and Oskar Klein produced a variant form of relativity, incorporating Einstein’s field equations and Maxwell’s equations and postulating a five dimensional space in which the fourth dimension is very small and recurved upon itself (this bears some resemblance to string theory). Nassim Haramein and Dr. John Brandenburg developed GEM theory, and then there is the Sachs-Evans unified field theory.

The late amateur experimental physicist Bruce De Palma claimed that if he shot two metal balls of equal weight upward with exactly the same force, and one ball was spinning and the other was not, the spinning ball would rise faster and higher than the other. He also claimed that a Faraday disc, if spun at a high enough speed, will actually achieve over unity and produce excess energy. A generator or dynamo produces electricity by moving viagra effects on women a conductor and a magnetic field relative to one another, but in a Faraday disc the conductor and the magnet spin together and do not move relative to one another. Yet the Faraday disc still produces electricity and loses momentum. De Palma also claimed to have measured a slight decrease in weight by counter-rotating two gyroscopes. In India, Paramahamsa Tewari claims to have duplicated De Palma’s experiments, and, from this, developed his space vortex theory.

There are many other thinkers, including alternative energy and gravity control researchers who have challenged conventional thinking. Three of them are of particular interest.

Richard Hoagland is an author and alternative thinker who has been the Curator of Astronomy and Space Science at the Springfield Science Museum, consultant to CBS News for the Apollo missions, and a consultant at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. He is the author of both The Monuments of Mars, and, in collaboration with aerospace engineer Michael Bara, Dark Mission. Hoagland and Bara write of what they call “hyper dimensional physics,” which they do not present as a complete theory but as a series of challenges to conventional physics.

According to Hoagland, there have been many contributors to hyper dimensional physics. James Clerk Maxwell supposedly believed that some physical phenomena in our three dimensional space could be explained as projections of four-dimensional objects. Mathematician H.S.M. Coxeter had predicted that a four dimensional hyper sphere’s projection into our three dimensional space would produce vortices at 19.47 degrees (this is an irrational number carried out to two decimal places) off its equator. Georg Riemann suggested that the three physical forces recognized in his time were one and the same in four-dimensional space.

Hoagland and Bara, regarding the vortices, point out that within a degree or so of 19.47 degrees from the equator on Earth we have the Hawaiian volcanic magma plume. On Mars there is the immense Olympus Mons volcano, on Jupiter the Great Red Spot, on Neptune a mysterious dark spot, and, on Venus, two major volcanic complexes. According to Hoagland, most sunspots are at this latitude. Hoagland believes that rotating objects can detect hyper dimensional information and absorb hyper dimensional energy and that all spinning objects are connected in hyperspace. He believes that the Sun’s angular momentum includes that of its orbiting planets and that there must be some fairly massive ones, as yet undiscovered, far beyond Pluto. He points out that solar activity seems to be affected by the positions of the planets. He also says that the mysterious hexagonal cloud structure around Saturn’s north pole was predicted by hyper dimensional physics. Hoagland and Bara also believe that spinning objects create what they call a “torsion field,” and that this may explain De Palma’s experimental results.

Hoagland and Bara make no effort buy online cialis to present a complete theory, but Paul La Violette, with degrees in physics and systems science, does. He details it in his books Genesis of the Cosmos and Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion, where he uses his theory to explain the apparent control of gravity achieved cialis for daily use by the American researcher Townsend Brown. La Violette’s theory, which he calls subquantum kinetics, postulates that there is a spiritual realm, and that the explicit order of the physical realm derives from the implicit order of the spiritual realm. He believes that there is a God, but that the Supreme Being is not separate from His creation. And he believes that there is an ether, made up of particles he calls “etherons,” which emerge from, and vanish back into, the spiritual realm. Etherons fill all of space and are far smaller than subatomic particles; in fact, the subatomic particles are made up of etherons, including the X etheron, which is negatively charged, the Y etheron, which is positive, and the G etheron, which provides mass and gravity.

La Violette was originally inspired by observing chemical waves, or reaction-diffusion waves, which, unlike mechanical waves, “arise spontaneously from the medium itself.” He writes of the “science of systems genesis, the process by which ordered forms (systems) spontaneously spring into being.” He believes that entropy applies only to closed systems and not to the universe overall, and rejects the notion of the expanding universe, explaining the red shift of distant galaxies as the spontaneous disappearance of the energy of photons. Protons, La Violette believes, create what he calls a “G well” that causes masses to move toward a positively charged object, which is now “downhill,” and this is how Townsend Brown’s devices work. La Violette believes that the presence of mass causes more mass (and energy) to spring into being, explaining much of the internal heat of planets and stars. He even suggests that massive objects grow with time and become hotter…planets may eventually become stars.

Halton Arp is a maverick astronomer, who, like Hoagland and Bara, does not present a complete theory, but challenges many assumptions of modern physics and cosmology. He observed that quasars with a large red shift, supposedly indicating that they were incredibly distant and ancient, often seemed to be very “close” to Seyfert galaxies with a low red shift. Now if, for example, two stars as seen from Earth seem “close” in the sense of being only a fraction of a degree apart, they may be, in fact, many light years from one another if one is much nearer to us than the other, but the quasar/Seyfert connection seems more than coincidental, and Arp has concluded that they are actually near one another in every case. If so, this means that the red shift is not caused by objects retreating from us in an expanding universe, but by something else. So he rejects the idea of an expanding universe and the idea of curved space and suggests that subatomic particles grow spontaneously over time, absorbing mass from space itself, and emit more energetic photons, as opposed to the low energy (red-shifted) photons from very young galaxies and stars. He also suggests (and he is not the first to do so) that gravity may be, not a pull, but a push from particles called “gravitons.” The ones coming from beneath us are partly absorbed by the earth, so we experience a net push toward the center of our world.

All of these alternative theories cannot be true, but it is possible that one of them is. Note that a majority of the alternative thinkers believe that there is some kind of ether, and that Paul La Violette believes there is a spiritual realm, rejecting the philosophical materialism that has infected so much of conventional science. One thing is certain: the science is not “settled.” Just as there was a nineteenth century physics before relativity and quantum mechanics, so there will be a future physics beyond the one currently accepted.

By William B. Stoecker