Indus Civilization Not Primitive
The mainstream archaeological spotlight has now come to bear on the once-forgotten Indus Civilization. A “Forgotten Utopia,” gushed the respected British science magazine New Scientist in September 2016. Science now concedes many of the Indus accomplishments, in particular that of surviving for 700 years without war, weapons, or social inequality. The extensive report is by researcher Andrew Robinson, who has just published The Indus: Lost Civilizations, a new book on the current state of research.
Artifacts and jewelry, even children’s games, have been found, but no weapons of war. The Indus people are now given credit for advanced waterworks—indoor plumbing, sophisticated irrigation and sanitation schemes, along with many other advancements indicating complex urban planning. Multistory brick structures and, long straight, streets aligned with a grid are among them. The Indus probably had a written language as well, but the many ceramic seals found throughout the region, and inscribed with mysterious symbols, have yet to be translated. The Indus River Valley “Utopia” existed, says orthodox archaeology, from 2600 to 1900 BC as part of the late Bronze age, but is that statement also ready to be updated?
As Atlantis Rising reported in issue #119, the Indus River Valley civilization in western India and eastern Pakistan is far older than previously believed. A new study in the journal Nature (May 25, 2016) cites evidence gathered from state-of-the-art “optically stimulated luminescence” technology used on pottery in the Mohenjo Daro area, near a river once considered only mythical. Pottery from what many believe is the valley of the Saraswati River, mentioned in Vedic lore, is now yielding dating of older than 9,000 years BP (before present) or about 7,000 BC. That is at least 2,500 years older than previously believed. In other words, it is older, by millennia, than the pyramids of Egypt or the megaliths of Stonehenge are currently believed to be (at least by conventional scholars). Researchers from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) carried out the study.
Implications for the history books are profound, we reported. For over a century, Eurocentric scholars have argued, in their so-called Aryan invasion hypothesis, that Western invaders civilized India. Now, it appears, the vector of civilization may have moved in the other direction. Moreover, there is now reason to revisit the case that Vedic culture, originating in such ancient texts as the Mahabharata and the Upanishads, is much older than previously thought and that evidence for writing, as well as for vast archaeological and technological achievement from before the end of the last ice age, will finally have to be taken seriously.
Off the coast of India, near the mouth of what may have been the Saraswati, have been found other enigmatic underwater ruins, which, it now seems likely, could prove to be the remains of long-sought, prediluvian civilization, even older than the culture now found on the mainland.
Earliest Americans Not Siberian
For many years the standard textbook explanation for how humans arrived in the Americas was that they came from Siberia and crossed a land bridge to Alaska. Now, new DNA research has completely ruled out that route for Americans before 12,600 years ago. A new study published in August in the journal Nature reveals, prior to that time, the corridor would have been “biologically unviable,” in other words, impossible.
The researchers concluded that while people may well have traveled the route after that point, it would have been impassable earlier, as it lacked crucial resources, such as wood for fuel and tools, and game animals for food.
The research was led by Professor Eske Willerslev, an evolutionary geneticist in the Department of Zoology and Fellow of St John’s College, University of Cambridge, U.K. “The bottom line is that even though the physical corridor was open by 13,000 years ago, it was several hundred years before it was possible to use it,” Willerslev said.
“That means that the first people entering what is now the U.S., Central and South America must have taken a different route. Whether you believe these people were Clovis, or someone else, they simply could not have come through the corridor, as long claimed.”
In recent years there have been many discoveries of human remains in both North and South America dating to long before 13,000 years ago. Archaeologist Nieda Guidon, for example, has discovered rock art at Pedra Furada in Brazil dating back 48,700 years. If, as the new research establishes, the rock painters could not have arrived by way of the Siberia/Alaska corridor, where did they come from? The plot thickens, and, once again, the school books are in need of a rewrite.
Easter Island Not Warlike
Experts have insisted that ancient Easter Island peoples were destroyed by war. The natives of Rapa Nui, we are told, killed each other in horrendous fighting and eventually ran out of resources. But now, a professor of Anthropology at U.K.’s Binghamton University, Carl Lipo, says that story is not true.
Lupo studied the profusion of sharp triangular obsidian objects deemed by European explorers to be weapons of war. After using the latest morphometric techniques to analyze the objects, known as mata’a, he concluded they would have been entirely unsuitable for war. They were not spear points. Contrary to the standard belief, the Easter Islanders, he says, actually had an amazing and successful society, and the mata’s were probably used for ritual tasks purposes, like tattooing or plant processing.