Mysterious Missionaries

So, Who Were the Globetrotting Teachers of the Ancients?

There are some among us who believe those “very ancient times” were actually long before the Neolithic. Mu’s best cities, in the opinion of James Churchward, were “built at or near the mouths of great rivers, these being the seats of trade and commerce, from which ships passed to and from all parts of the world” (Churchward, The Lost Contient of Mu., p. 26). In fact, he was told by Caroline Islanders that the first men “had very large boats in which they sailed all over the world…” (Churchward, The Children of Mu, 101).

One useful clue, in quest of those prehistorical Sea Kings, is this: the megaliths in Europe were mostly concentrated in coastal regions; similarly, foreign stone inscriptions in Brazil are found along the banks of her rivers. The Children of the Sun, a 1923 book, a classic really, by William J. Perry, made a good case for “trading missionaries” who sailed abroad in search of metals and minerals, promulgating the worship of the Sun. The venerable prehistorian Gordon Childe called them “megalithic saints” who preached the burial of their divine rulers in great tombs of stone; wherever found, their strict agreement in the details of funerary architecture was, he thought, clear evidence of a wide-ranging megalithic religion.


Malaya’s Mines

In the Egyptian version of this extravagant tomb cult, the high priest/King of the Sun, almost 5,000 years ago (Old Kingdom), was himself a god; therefore the proper burial of the royal dead was of supreme importance and was also the reason, in part, for expeditions in search of raw materials for tomb and temple alike. And when their Sun cult was carried to distant locations, so were the scruples of sepulchral architecture: as Perry reports (39), “the civilization of Minahassa [insular Southeast Asia] was ascribed by native tradition to strangers who placed their dead in rock-cut tombs, sometimes in large monoliths.”

Were prospectors/missionaries of the Near East’s Sun cult indeed the strangers who built megaliths in obscure places like Minahassa? Consider the Phoenicians (a loose term which might include Egyptians, Arabians, Cretans, Aegeans, or Western Asians) who, 2,500 years ago, were certainly trading in Sumatra, probably because their own mines had been gradually exhausted (Birket-Smith, The Paths of Culture, p. 81). Tin is fairly rare; today’s most important mines are still in Malaya’s small islands off Sumatra.

Thousands of years ago, world-class engineers in Redjang, Sumatra, worked goldfields and built stone images; not coincidentally, “a Phoenician script is [still] in use in the Redjang district.” There are also signs of an alien people in Malaya’s tin-rich Perak region and at Pahang, whose very ancient mines, enclosed today by virgin forest, show a quality of workmanship otherwise unknown in the region, their excavations yielding “tons of precious metal… What was the race that opened these mines? Evidently the same that built those wonderful monuments in the Malay Peninsula … [Can we] assume that the directive mind was Phoenician?” Archaeologists have puzzled over such sites—when no tools were found. But perhaps the foreigners took their tools with them when they departed. The Phoenicians made no permanent settlements in Sumatra, “were not colonists; they were exploiters” of the native tin (Perry, 83-94).


Michigan’s Metals

The Phoenicians, we know, did business in Cornwall (tin mines), Spain (iron, tin, and lead), Cyprus (copper), Africa (gold), and probably Australia. What about America? Ignatius Donnelly may have been the first to propose that bronze was an import to the Old World and that America supplied the copper necessary to make it. Unknown miners were extracting huge amounts of copper from the Lake Superior region of Michigan even before the Neolithic: “They dig deep down and bring copper and silver and lead in boats to the King” (Oahspe, The Lords’ Third Book 1.6, referring to the Age of Apollo, more than 16,000 BP).

Valmiki’s Ramayana declares, “In ages so remote that the sun had not yet risen above the horizon,” the people of India were “navigators whose ships traveled from the Western to the Eastern oceans, and from the Southern to the Northern seas.” This tallies with a terracotta seal at Mohenjo-Daro showing a large high-prowed ship with a spacious on-deck cabin, surely a sign of “an ancient science of cartography and navigation that explored the world and charted it accurately” (Hancock, Underworld, 126, 669). These maritime Vedics navigated around Africa and probably crossed the Atlantic in search of America’s copper and tin. The key to such a claim is the discrepancy between the amount of copper mined and the actual findings of copper in ancient America—an unexplained gap, unless we infer a lively export trade.

The Pharaohs of Egypt sent expeditions not only to proverbial Punt for raw materials; King Rameses III’s quest for copper, thinks Frank Joseph, ended up at “Michigan’s Upper Peninsula … Only [here] could Rameses have obtained such large amounts of exceptional copper” (Joseph, “Mysteries of the Land of Punt,” Atlantis Rising # 103,  Jan-Fed, 2014). After all, pictures of Cretan-type vessels at Isle Royal (northern Michigan) go back as long ago as 8,000 years (Richard Dewhurst, The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America, 203); meanwhile, Cretan and pre-Columbian ceramics picture four-masted ships of quite similar appearance, ships that could carry hundreds of passengers. Their Cretan name was cara-mequera; the Tupi-Guarani of Brazil use exactly the same name: cara-mequera (Homet, Sons of the Sun, 170).

Indeed, Harvard’s incomparable Barry Fell virtually proved that Egyptians, Libyans, Phoenicians, and other people once visited or even settled America, the land  retaining scars of ancient operations for mica, gold, quartz, silver, hematite, and copper. At Cuenca, Ecuador, a Libyan inscription was found with the drawing of an elephant. In the north, the controversial stele at Davenport, Iowa, bears a trilingual inscription in Libyan, Egyptian, and Punic. Libyan explorers also left their mark in Texas, on the Rio Grande Cliffs; the inscription proclaims they had been sent by Pharaoh Shishonq. South American/Egyptian parallels, every prehistorian knows, are legion, ranging from mausoleum pearls and frescoes to death masks, mummies, headdresses, hieroglyphs, ritual axes, stonework, actual measurements of pyramids, the sacred crocodile, strains of cotton, dentistry, and surgery—and styles of metallurgy.


Megaliths and Mines

Metal objects in Argentina have been linked to the megalith builders of Tiahuanaco (A.C. Haddon, The Wanderings of People, p. 112). Metalwork has also been taken from the graves of Panama’s Cocle civilization, known for its magnificent avenues of megalithic columns. Their curious pictographs have a Muvian ring, for they are similar to Easter Island’s Rongo rongo script. At Easter Island itself, a very old stone carving shows a ship with three masts, much larger than those used by the natives in historical time.

Such Mesoamerican/Pacific links—and there are many—fill in but one corner of the giant puzzle which, once assembled, has traffic criss-crossing all the sea-lanes of the ancient world. Tiahuanaco’s acclaimed Gateway of the Sun is akin to the 109-ton  trilithon on Tongatabu. In fact, Tiahuanaco, Peru, Tonga, Hawaii, and Easter Island all employed the precise tongue-in-groove method of stonework. Easter’s notched Vinapu wall, moreover, is fitted with a keystone that holds the whole affair together—exactly like the keystone at Cuzco’s Sacsayhuaman whose large blocks also feature “strange knobs” and rounded corners, just like Vinapu’s.

It is also worth our attention that Mu’s megaliths are only found in good, pearl fishing centers of the Pacific. In the same “vein,” mining and megaliths run tandem in the ancient remains of southeast Asia: Age-old copper mines in Timor, for example, are situated near great unexplained ruins. The same holds true in England and Wales, Brittany and Andalusia, deposits of ores distributed in exactly the same regions as megaliths. The pattern holds also for India; in Hyderabad and Madras, copper, iron, and gold mines are intimately associated with dolmen remains and circle cairns. In the Deccan “even greater quantities [stone ruins] are reported … The districts where the dolmens are thickest are riddled with old workings for gold, copper and iron”; and the same is true for tin-rich Assam and Burma (Perry, 42, 91, 101, 87).

It was all a bit like King Oil today or like outsourcing, considering the cheap (free?) labor that less-scrupulous masters might round up in these backward regions.


Alien Builders           

The question inevitably arises: Who exactly were the builders? The dolmens and monoliths in the Celebes “were the work of strangers” (Perry, 39). In Phoenician legends of Lord Baal, he conquers the races of distant lands. “From at least the Middle Bronze Age … the chief motive for marine missions was…  the securing of the minerals needed by the international technologies… Cuneiform literature … illustrates access to raw materials in many far-off areas.” (Cyrus Gordon, Before Columbus)

They say the men who had Cholula’s cyclopean pyramid built were foreigners, the mysterious, tall, white Toltecs, the race that discovered the “precious green stones” and found the mountains hiding silver and god, copper and tin. Chichen Itza’s Temple of a Thousand Columns was also founded by white strangers, called Chanes, who had landed at Vera Cruz. Note the resemblance to Chan-te-leur, Panape’s “King of the Sun.” Chan, in the ancient sun cult, was a title for priestly dynasties and city-builders, like the mandarins behind Turkestan’s Chan-pa-Chan pyramid and Peru’s Chan Chan (with massive architecture) and Colombia’s Sutumar-Chan, with megalithic standing stones. Bochica, Colombia’s savior, “sent by God,” was different from any race known to the locals; he appeared suddenly from a land to the east, built great towers and introduced the worship of the Sun.

Even California Indian history speaks of “foreign invaders… making them into helots … Similar prehistoric invaders of the South American west coast… made the ancestors pile up stones for a great temple whereon these great lords might take refuge” (Wilkins, 16). Sun kings in the Penryhn and Mariana Islands may also have been “foreign invaders,” the architects of their monuments described by natives as alien builders who arrived by sea long ago.

In all these lands, the ruling class, the royalty that engendered the sun kingdoms—the theocracies—were “a race of conquerors … a great stone-building aristocracy who imposed… a species of slavery unequalled for its severity before or since… there was no such thing as personal freedom” (Spence, 1933, 197). The popular will cared little for the vaunted ancestors of the ruling class.


Sun Kings on the Move

“The King of the Sun, King of Kings … sent his proclamations to the chief cities … commanding that certain presents must be sent to him every year, among which were thousands of subjects (slaves).”  (Oahspe, Book of God’s Word 16.6, referring to Western Asia about 9,000 years ago).

One finds traces of these sun-worshiping, seafaring proto-Phoenicians in Europe, South Africa, the Indian Ocean, Australia, Oceania, and the Americas. Inscriptions on numerous South American menhirs and dolmens contain letters from early Mediterranean alphabets. Inscribed stones in the jungles of Brazil recount that Phoenicians and Carthaginians wandered this way trading and hunting valuable mineral lodes: “We are sons of Canaan from Sidon….” reads the Phoenician inscription in Minas Gerais, the region boasting enormous reserves of iron ore (the old Semitic term for iron is Brzl).

Phoenician and Carthaginian ships, some over 1,000 tons, could carry up to 250 men. Wall paintings on the Pedra de Gavea near the Rio de Janeiro show Phoenician letters. There are also Phoenician glass beads in Brazil and Phoenician designs on Arawak stone hatchets. Ideograms associated with their sun-god Baal are seen in parts of Peru, whose ancient amphitheaters are indeed very much like Mediterranean ones. Now the Peruvian highlands contain voluminous mineral deposits, as does Bolivia (copper and tin), where a carved rock records the visit of an Egyptian priest; part of the inscription mentions silver mines near the Madeira River. Priest? Yes, it seems likely that astronomer-priests, remembered as men in black, steered the ships that came in search of foreign ores. Rock pictures in the Guianas and Amazonia show tall men in long robes, with something like haloes about the head. (The divine Sun Kings of western Asia were often haloed).

Indeed, most of the megalithic kings claimed direct descent from the Sun God Himself, their works in stone—in Egypt, India and Oceania—designed to exalt their Holy Selves. Egyptian pharaohs made powerful architectural statements for their absolute and divine status—the more lavish the expenditure, the greater the authority. In the forthright words of Thomas Gladwin (280), “a large number of bearded white Levantines [were] hustling around looking for the best places … to set themselves up as gods… having arrived from various parts of India and the Near and Middle East.”


Sacrifices to the Sun 

The Brazilian Paraiba inscription (530 BC) is a controversial stone tablet that reads: “We are sons of Canaan from Sidon … Commerce has cast us on this distant shore.” Recording that ten ships had sailed from the Red Sea, the inscription goes on to state: “We set [i.e. sacrificed] a youth for the exalted gods … [after being] separated by a storm from the hand of Baal.”

Human sacrifice was reverently offered to the bloodthirsty Sun, not only by the globetrotting Phoenicians but also by the ancestors of the Samoans, Easter Islanders, New Hebriders, Australians, Aztec, Natchez, and ancient Britons. “Priests with knives of stone killed the victim in prehistoric Britain [Stonehenge], just as they did in old Mexico” (Wilkins, 115). Human sacrifice has been inferred at “America’s Stonehenge,” too: here in New Hampshire, the 4,000-year-old site (aka Mystery Hill) has megalithic stone chamber, quartz deposits, and observatory alignments typical of those in Europe. Its incised rectangular stone, thought to have served to collect the blood of sacrificial victims, bears an inscription written in Phoenician, proclaiming their deity Baal: “To Baal of the Kanaani, this is dedicated.” In Illinois, too, 300 burial sacrifices were uncovered near the celebrated Cahokia’s Monks Mound, where the Sun calendar is again similar to that of Stonehenge. Here, signs of ritual execution abound (mostly young women in mass graves); the ruler reposes on a lavish blanket of 20,000 beads, surrounded by the bodies of his hapless attendants.

Africans are known to call the ancient dolmens found on their continent “tombs of the idolators.” Jewish legend calls them the wayward sons of Enosh, those generations of godless men who erected huge idols and monuments to self. Recently a Finnish tourist accidentally knocked off the earlobe of a moai statue on Easter Island and was arrested and forced to pay a fine of $17,000 dollars. The ancient hype continues…

By Susan B. Martinez, Ph.D.