An obscure Egyptian artifact in the Egyptian museum of Turin Italy provides remarkable evidence that the builders of the Great Pyramid, whoever they were, possessed deep insight into the meaning of the Golden Rule.
The Egyptian Rule from the tomb of the architect Kha has the appearance of a ruler, but its divisions are not equal by any means. The Turin Rule, in fact, is an amalgamation of Egyptian beliefs, canons, and knowledge comprising their science, gods, and theory of mathematics, geometry, and proportion. Every division on the rule refers to a provincial Nome [one of thirty-six territorial divisions of ancient Egypt —ED] and its guardian god. The Turin Rule is an icon like DaVinci’s ‘Vitruvian Man’—an expression of the new Egyptian renaissance that occurred after the Great Flood. Though it is impossible to measure anything with the Turin Rule, it nonetheless records the code to determine the true size of the Great Pyramid.
For centuries scientists and students of metrology and philosophy have visited Egypt to determine the measurements of the Great Pyramid: among them were John Greaves (1602–1652), John Taylor (1781–1864), Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819–1900), and ultimately, Flinders Petrie (1853–1942), who declared that the Great Pyramid was so much damaged at its corners and apex that precise measurements were impossible to achieve. However, Petrie did notice that the Great Pyramid contained a more ancient core pyramid inside its ruined cladding. This is a spectacular revelation about antiquity—the consequences of which must revise our view about world history; namely, that such a famous monument may have survived the Great Flood.
The Turin Measuring Rule
Nora E. Scott (Archaeologist, Columbia University professor, chief curator of Egyptian Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1905–1994) reports that the cubit was the standard linear measure in Egypt and the ancient Near East, as well as among Romans, Hebrews, and Greeks. Egyptians used cubits of two lengths: the short cubit of six palms, and the royal cubit of seven palms. Scott complains that it is nearly impossible to obtain information or photographs from the museums in which these artifacts are found. Furthermore, she describes the measuring sticks as ‘multifunctional,’ almost like an almanac containing every manner of information. They are ceremonial, dedicatory, found among funerary furnishings, and temple paraphernalia. They are astronomical, calendric, and related to the inundation levels of the Nile flood. They are dedicated to ‘all the gods and the Royal Cubit.’ Each of the 28 divisions into fingers was dedicated to a particular god and his particular provincial Nome.
Measurements vary among the 26 existing samples and fragments of these sticks, many of which were made of stone indicating a purely ceremonial use. Some of the sticks referred to numbers or measurements of astronomical proportions—such as “a million cubits,” and “one million five hundred thousand cubits.” Ludwig Borchardt translates one of the inscriptions on the measuring sticks, “The hour according to the cubit… a copper jar filled with water (a water clock).” It seems appropriate to conclude that the Egyptian measuring sticks combined a multitude of Egyptian science, metrology, mathematics, astronomy, and culture in an interrelated symbolic canon of their cosmology and ideas. The Turin rule, itself, was made of wood overlaid with gold. It could therefore be called “the Golden Rule” because of its symbolic, canonical, and multifunctional character spoken of by Nora E. Scott.
Some researchers like Scott assumed that the finger-units on the rule were all of equal length—as one might expect of a modern tape measure. However the 28 finger-unit sections are of different lengths with no immediately apparent system, rhyme, or reason. It is not possible to measure anything with an inconsistent ruler. What then was the idea behind this exotic measuring stick? The 28 finger-units suggest a relationship to the cycle of four phases of the Moon during four seven-day weeks in a cycle of 28 days (4 x 7 = 28). Fred Hoyle, the American astronomer, has shown that simple megalithic circles around the world were laid out in 13 lunation’s of 28 days which closely synchronizes the lunar and solar year in the formula: 13 months x 28 days = 364 days ÷ 7 = 52 weeks). Such sites had 28 or 56 (2 x 28 = 56) Aubrey holes in which a sun stone and a moon-stone were moved along to keep track of the times and the seasons.
Egypt and the world, some believe, had been subject to the Great Flood, which had debilitated science and civilization for a considerable period of time. When the world reinvented itself, I believe, people again came to the Nile and discovered a remnant of the ancient Golden Age before the deluge. They saw the ancient core pyramid, where each side was 440 cubits of 18 inches in length = 7920 inches to symbolize the 7920 miles in the diameter of the earth. The circumference of the base was 31,680 inches (4 x 7,920), which coincided with the miles in the circumference of the earth’s halo or atmosphere where life is generated and supported. The ancients called this the Sub-Lunar world. The height of the core pyramid was 5,040 inches (symbolizing miles) taken from the radius of the Moon plus the radius of the Earth (1,080 + 3,960 = 5,040 miles).
My own research has led me to conclude that the Old Kingdom pharaohs were entranced by the mysteries of the already ancient, antediluvian, pyramid in their midst. The Great Pyramid revealed many secrets about the earth—its diameter, its life-giving atmosphere, etc.—but upon closer inspection, it was learned that the structure was no longer aligned to the cardinal points of the compass—a physical necessity for a pyramid to jibe or communicate with the cosmos. Work was begun to restore and realign the structure by adding a new layer of polished Tura casing stones over the old core pyramid.
The base of the new, larger, and renovated pyramid would be slightly skewed upon the old core to correctly realign to the current cardinal points of north-east-south-west. The other main problem was that the Egyptians also wished to preserve the proportions of the old pyramid relative to Pi (π) and Phi (φ) as a necessary condition of physics to transfer the spiritual cosmic energy from heaven down to the land of the Nile.
Pythagoras, the philosopher and mathematician, after his visit to Egypt, spoke about the Monad as the ‘first principle’ of creation and hinted that the Monad was the universe, which developed by dividing itself into two portions. Through this division, the mysterious ‘undefined Dyad’ was generated. Subsequent to this generation, the Triad was formed. William Stirling in The Canon says that the Greeks summed up their theology in a Triad of symbolic persons analogous to the great Triad of the Cabala. In Plato’s Timaeus the divine Triad is called Theos, Logos, and Psyche—God, Son, and Holy Ghost, which became the essence of Christian theology.
St. Athanasius says, “We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity.” This is thought to be some secret and mysterious theology; but it concerns only an ancient canon regarding the origin of numbers generated through divine proportions, like the Golden Mean.
The Golden Mean was considered to be the prime building block of nature—strong, flexible, and adaptive to accommodate the constant motion and change in the universe.
Using our accompanying diagram, we can re-create the geometry of the Golden Mean by making a ‘true square’ out of the Monad (that became the ‘undefined Dyad’) by creating a new height equal to the base. Remarkably, the Egyptians have already placed a dash where the height of the true-square is formed. Additionally, when the point of the compass is placed in the right-hand corner of the base, and the other point placed on the dot in the Sun-circle above—the arc that swings down—perfectly creates Φ 1.618 upon the base of the Triad.
This creation of Φ is also justified by the diagonal of 1/2 the Monad-Dyad square—dropping exactly upon the φ 0.618 of the Triad. This recalls an ancient method for constructing the Golden Mean proportion using two adjacent square boxes. It may also be seen that the Egyptians appreciated the concept of cardinal and ordinal numbers. The first ‘ordinal-cut,’ or division of the Monad creates the cardinal number ‘two.’ The third-cut produces ‘four cardinal sections,’ and the ‘fifth ordinal-cut’ produces ‘six cardinal sections.’
The practical application of the above information from the Turin Rule gives us a new understanding of the Great Pyramid and its controversial proportions. Sir Flinders Petrie closely examined the pyramid, which he described in his book, The Pyramids & Temples of Gizeh (1923). He found that the pyramid core was no longer aligned to true north and that the renovation and re-cladding and super-structure were skewed upon the ancient core in an effort to realign the pyramid once again to true north. Ancient core pyramids beneath renovations are by no means unusual in the world; and they are found in Yucatan in Chichen Itza and Guatemala at Tikal.
Below are the measurements of the old core Pyramid which produce both π and Φ: 7,920 (base) ÷ 5,040 (height) = 1.571428571 x 2 = 3.142857 (ancient value of pi π as 22/7)
5,040 (height) ÷ 7920 (base) = 0.636363636 x 2 = 1.2727272→ (close to the correct value of the √ of 1.618 Φ = 1.272006289)
Nature employs the Golden Mean throughout creation, growth, and development of all things from pinecones to mollusk shells to overlapping rose petals. The seeds of an apple are arranged in a five-pointed-star pattern, producing the golden ratio. The mollusk shell of the nautilus is constructed on the basis of the Golden Mean; and is held by the Hindu goddess Shiva as a symbol of creation, change, and destruction. The Golden Ratio is the most irrational and incommensurable number, which represents subatomic matter as well as the giant spiral galaxies of the universe and concepts of infinity and God. The Egyptians perceived the flexibility of the Golden Mean to quickly bind, as well as easily separate, structures—an exceptionally advanced scientific canon (The Golden Ratio, by Mario Livio).
The architects in charge of extending and realigning the ‘new’ Great Pyramid conferred with the priests, and asked, “We have ancient measures and canons given to us by the gods. These laws connect Heaven and Earth and everything in the universe; and bind everything together in one ordered and sacred context, which benefits all our people and the Land of Egypt, and those who study among us from faraway foreign nations. Give us the canons whereby this enlargement may be completed and still retain the blessed proportions of the ancient pyramid.”
The philosophers and scientists of the priesthood conferred; and after lengthy consultations, resolved their problem in a very astute way that pleased their holy community and the architects by keeping the ancient and hallowed ‘Cosmic Cubit’ of 18 inches—while creating a new ‘Royal Cubit’ of 21 inches. They had extended the ancient canon of 6 + 6 + 6 = 18 inches to 7 + 7 + 7 = 21 inches, changing sixes to sevens—a colloquialism still in our culture; namely, to be in a quandary ‘at sixes and sevens.’
The divisions drawn on the Turin Golden Rule above expresses the new synthesis of proportions, measures, and numbers:
Cosmic Cubit = 18 inches = 24 fingers = 6 palms = 12 x Φ (1.618)
Royal Cubit = 21 inches = 28 fingers = 7 palms = 14 x Φ (1.618)
This excellent solution gave the architects an extended ruler expressing the precise proportional change from ‘six to seven’ in understandable terms of fingers, palms, cubits, and inches. It also preserved the idea of the origin of numbers through the ‘equal but undifferentiated’ divisions of the Monad (where the Dyad lengths were not shown to be equal to their heights). Also, the Triad became portioned into 0.618 φ and its remainder of 0.382. Here, the Golden Mean was born as a proportion that connects (as well as separates) the Monad, Dyad, and Triad. The Golden Mean Proportion is the building block of physics that weaves as well as unravels creation throughout the cosmos.
The newly re-clad Old Kingdom Pyramid was realigned to true north (above the old core pyramid) producing a pyramid of 770 feet per base side x 12” = 9,240 inches ÷ 21 Royal inches = 440 Royal Cubits of 21 inches length (7” + 7” + 7” = 21”)
The new Great Pyramid did not exhibit the diameter of the earth, the circle of the Earth’s Atmosphere, or the radius of the Moon and Earth; but it did express the divine proportions of the Golden Ratio and the relationship of the diameter to its circle as 3.14:
9,240 base ÷ 5,880 height = 1.57142 x 2 = 3.142857 (ancient π)
5880 height ÷ 9240 base = 0.636363 x 2 = 1.272727 (ancient √ of 1.618 Φ) modern value, 1.272006
The ‘Golden Rule’ at the Turin museum expresses a seminal moment in the rebuilding and renaissance of Egyptian culture after the deluge. The common (cosmic) cubit of 18 inches and 24 fingers relates to the old solar culture before the flood. There are 24 hours in a day. 8,640 hours in a year. Twelve zodiac houses times 2,160 years equal the Precession of the Vernal Equinoxes of 25,920 years. All of the above figures are divisible by twelve, a solar number. The new Royal Cubit of 21 inches and 28 fingers relates to the new lunar Egyptian culture after the deluge. The lunar culture still celebrated the number twelve but now honored the number seven above all in the 28 days and four, seven-day phases of the Moon.
As the original core pyramid served as a ‘Golden Canon’ of the Antediluvian Age—the later and larger ‘cladded’ Great Pyramid became the icon of the Egyptian Renaissance during the so called ‘Old Kingdom’ that developed and thrived after the flood.
The New Great Pyramid was 9,240 inches = 770 feet. Current size without cladding is about 756 feet –allowing 14 feet for cladding: 7 feet on each side. The height of this new pyramid was 5,880 inches = 490 feet. Current height is about 480.6 feet, a difference of 9.4 feet.
Thomas Karl Dietrich is the author of Origin of Culture, The Culture of Astronomy, and his new book, Temple of Heaven & Earth. Website: http://www.cosmomyth.com. Contact: atlas@CosmoMyth.com.